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Genus Green Passerine Parrots
The genus Green Passerine Parrots (Nannopsittaca) includes two species of parrots:
Green passerine parrot (Nannopsittaca panychlora)
The length of the parrot is 14 cm. The main color of the plumage is green, the area around the eyes, especially under the eyes, is yellowish. Yellow tints are also present in the plumage of the forehead, frenulum and chin, which is most pronounced in males. The wing bend is black, the carpal margin is pale yellow. Beak and eyes are dark brown.
The green passerine parrot is found in Brazil, Guyana and Venezuela. Inhabits subtropical and tropical humid lowland or mountain forests.
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Green Amazonian Passerine Parrot (Nannopsittaca dachilleae)
A small stocky parrot about 12 cm long. The plumage is yellow-green, the bridle and forehead are bluish, the cheeks and chin are yellow-green. Shoulders and lesser wing coverts with olive shade. The beak is pale pink. The eyes are brown.
The Amazonian green passerine parrot lives in lowland forests near rivers in the western Amazon, from southern Peru to northwestern Bolivia. Birds keep in small flocks, up to 20 individuals. They feed mainly on seeds and fruits.
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General information on Canaima
- Full name: "Canaima" National Park (Spanish. Parque Nacional Canaima).
- Region: Bolivar State, Venezuela.
- IUCN category: Canaima - II (national parks).
- Date of foundation: June 12, 1962
- Area: 30 thousand km2.
- Relief: mountainous, part of a mountain plateau with mononocks, dotted with mountain gorges, rivers and waterfalls.
- Climate: subequatorial.
- Official website: //salto-angel.com/
- The purpose of its creation: preservation for our descendants of unique geological formations - tepuis and the highest and perhaps the most beautiful waterfall in the world Angel, protection of natural complexes of humid savannas, rain equatorial and gallery forests in the floodplains of the rivers of the Orinoco basin.
- Visiting Canaima - paid
Canaima - information for park visitors
Canaima National Park lies in the southeast of the Republic of Venezuela, in the state of Bolivar, the municipality of Gran Sabana on the border with Brazil and Guyana.
In the very center of the park is the administrative center, the town of Canaima with a population of 1200 people. It has small hotels and restaurants, as well as a tiny airfield serving locals and tourists. It receives daily charter flights from Caracas.
The park is open all year round, but a more favorable excursion period is from the first decade of May to November, when the rainy season begins and the waterfalls located in the protected area become the most spectacular. The visit is paid.
Ground infrastructure and transport links are poorly developed in the protected area, therefore, it is possible to find yourself in the depths of the "Canaima" mainly on small aircraft. On the other hand, the aircraft offers breathtaking landscapes.
Visitors to the park can go canoeing on the lake, rafting on small rivers, and walking along numerous paths, such as a special path between water streams and a rock. On a long hike with local guides, you can see all the sights of the park, visit the Indian Pemon tribe - the indigenous inhabitants of this territory.
History of Canaima Park
From time immemorial, the aborigines of the southeast of Venezuela, the Indian Pemon tribe, knew about the existence of an area with mesas and waterfalls, some of which, thanks to ancient volcanic activity, carried colored water. These mountains were called "tepui", that is, "home of the gods." The Indians considered the territory to be mystical.
The first European, who in 1595. saw a huge waterfall and described it in his books, became the English traveler and writer Sir Walter Raleigh. Later, in his reports, the conquistador Fernando Berrio mentioned "a stream of clear water falling from the sky."
Then there was no information about tepuis and waterfalls for three centuries, and only in 1910. the waterfall was again discovered by the lieutenant of the Venezuelan fleet, the Spanish explorer E. Sanchez la Cruz.
The world learned about this amazing territory after the American pilot James Crawford Angel flew over it in 1933.
In 1937. he returned here not alone, but as part of an expedition that tried to survey tepui with a waterfall "a mile away," as Angel said. Unfortunately, the plane, having landed on the tepui, fell into a quagmire. Travelers only two weeks later were able to get first to the village of the Indians, who warmed and fed them, and then to civilization.
In 1949. another expedition headed by the former military correspondent, the American Ruth Robertson, went to the waterfall on motorboats along the Churun River. Later in National Geographic there was an article by Robertson "Journey through the jungle to the highest waterfall in the world." The Spanish name - Angel - the waterfall received in honor of James Angel.
In 1962. Tepui, Angel Falls and the surrounding area were declared Canaima National Park. This is the second largest protected area in the country. In 1994. it is included in the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites.
In 2009. by order of the President of Venezuela, the waterfall was renamed into Kerepakupay - this is what the locals called him long before the appearance of the American pilot. However, on the maps of all countries of the world, Kerepakupai is still designated as Angel Falls.
Walk in tepui and park
Between the rain equatorial forests of the Amazon and Orinoco basins, the Roraima Plateau stretches - the south of the Guiana Highlands. It is surrounded by a rocky wall of Pakaraima mountains. Most of the 2000-meter steep mountains have flat peaks. The world knows the table mountains under the Indian name "tepui".
On the tops of many mountains there are deep karst craters up to 300m in diameter. They were formed due to the collapse of the vaults of the internal cavities, made by underground rivers. The most famous and deepest of the caves is Abismo Gui Collet. Numerous rain-fed rivers flow from the edges of the tepuis, creating beautiful waterfalls and deep canyons.
The plateau was named after one high mountain - Roraima, located on the border of Guyana, Venezuela and Brazil.
Sarisarinyama with deep canyons at the top is named for the analogy with the crunch of jaws that the evil demon dwelling on its top makes. Auyantepui in the language of the Pemon tribe means "the mountain of the devil." Its area is the largest of all the tepuis in the park - 715 km2. It is from here that Angel Falls begins its rapid descent to the ground.
There are many other interesting mountains on the territory of the reserve park, almost each of them has its own name. Cerro Autana is a mountain sacred to the Pemon Indians, they believe that this massif, eaten by karst caves and funnels, is the trunk of the tree of life, through which the juices of the Earth flow. The surface of Cerro Pintado ("painted mountain") is covered with ancient petroglyphs that have no analogues in the world.
The Canaima Lagoon, after which the park was named, is located in the northwest of the protected area. The wide expanse of water is flanked by a cream-sand beach.
With noise and splashes, six majestic waterfalls rush down from the mesas: Acha, Golondrina, Ukaima, Sapito, Sapo and Ara.
Natural wonders and fun in Canaima
The main attraction of Canaima Park is the Kerepakupai (Angel) waterfall, it is the highest on the planet. In the Pemon language, the waterfall is called Kerepakupai-Vienna, which means "waterfall of the deepest place."
Jets of water, falling from a great height, are sprayed into the air, turning into fog. This suspension of the smallest water particles can be felt ten kilometers from the waterfall. The streams of the waterfall flow into the Gauja River, better known as Kerep, and then into the Churun River.
Tepui - remnant uplands (monadnock), fragments of a vast plateau that stretched in the distant past from the Atlantic coast to the borders of the basins of the Rio Negro, Amazon and Orinoco rivers. These amazing mountains were formed in the Precambrian period, when South America and Africa were still a single huge supercontinent of Gondwana. Ancient igneous rocks (granite) are covered with layers of sandstone and lava, and they got their present shape thanks to centuries of erosion.
- 979 meters - The total height of the Kerepakupai waterfall (Angel)
- 807 meters - The total height of the continuous fall of the Kerepakupai waterfall (Angel)
- 672 meters - Depth of the Abismo-Gui-Collet cave
More about the reserve:
- Angel Falls, Auyantepui and lagoon canaima known throughout the planet.
- Pico de la Neblina, or "mountain of mists" - clouds constantly hang over it.
- The sheer wall of Auyantepui rises above the rainforest.
- Pale Saki is an arboreal inhabitant of the tropical forests of the northeastern part of the South American continent.
- Emerald hummingbird (Chlorostilbon sp.) Pollinates a flower of the genus Strelitzia sp. preventing him from dying.
- The banana songbird (Coereba flaveola) is only about 11cm long and inhabits the rainforests of South and Central America, feeding on berry juice, insects and nectar.
The flora of the park
The vegetation of "Canaima" is mainly equatorial rain forests. However, the flora on the tepuis' summits is significantly different. As a rule, there are isolated biogeocenoses called Pantepui. They occupy the surface of the mesas plateau from 1500m.
The processes of biological isolation are characteristic of Pantepui, 65% of the park's territory can be attributed to the category of botanical refugium (from Latin refugium - refuge, a place where a species has survived or is experiencing an unfavorable period, during which it has already disappeared over large areas). There is a very high degree of endemism (33%) and due to the common past of Africa and South America, the tepui peaks have species characteristic of the African continent and the Andes mountainous regions.
Exceptional species diversity is observed on isolated flat tops. So, of the 2322 species of vascular plants in the northern parts of South America, representatives of 630 genera are found on tepuy, of which 766 species are endemic, and 65 species generally live only here.
The national park is spread over four phytogeographic regions, each with its own set of characteristic and endemic taxa.
For example, at the moment there are 20 species of bamboo of the genus Myriocladus among the endemics of the tepuy summit plateaus.
Also on tepuys you can find endemic species of Bromeliaceae, Gentianaceae, Haemodoraceae, Rapateaceae, Xyridaceae, Magnoliaceae, Sapindaceae and Myrtaceae.
The fauna of "Canaima" - the park is no less diverse than the flora. Of the mammals, 186 species live in the protected area, they mainly occupy the lower slopes of the mountains. This includes 9 primate species, such as the red howler (Alouatta seniculus), the three-banded night monkey (Aotus trivirgatus), the collar jumper (Callicebus torquatus), the black-headed uakari (Cacajao melanocephalus), the chestnut capuchin (Celedivheus ), 5 species from the feline family, such as jaguars (Panthera onca) and cougars (Puma concolor).
The ubiquitous common iguana (Iguana Iguana) and tegu (Tupinambis spp.) Can be found in every corner of the park.
In the park, you can often find a mouse opossum (Marmosa tyleriana) and a white-eared one (Didelphis albiventris), a long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata), a three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus) and a variety of bats (Microchiroptera). Of the endemic species, representatives of the cricetidae family, such as Podoxymys roraimae, are found exclusively on Roraima.
The territory of "Canaima" is inhabited by a large number of birds, out of 628 species, 41 are endemic to the park, for example, the Venezuelan tinamu (Crypturellus ptaritepui), the red-shouldered red-tailed parrot (Pyrrhura egregia), the green passerine parrot (Nannopsittaca panychlora), the Venezuelan gibbet (Campylopterus hyperythrus), gray-footed saber-wing (Campylopterus duidae), peacock coquette (Lophornis pavoninus), Tepuy golden-throated hummingbird (Polytmus milleri), brown diamond (Heliodoxa xanthogonys), white-chinned forest filidor (Automolae)
Reptiles and amphibians abound on the tops of the tepui, such as spearhead snakes (Bothrops spp.), Coral snakes (Micrurus spp.), Common boas (Boa constrictor) and bushmasters (Lachesis muta).
The park's rivers and Canaima lagoon are teeming with tropical freshwater fish, and a huge number of butterflies flutter over the water.
Tepui of Venezuela with Angel Falls literally bewitches visitors of the national park, forcing tourists to return to Canaima again and again.